Adult males have a pronounced cape (mane and mantle), silver-white in color, which they develop around the age of ten, while the females are capeless and brown all over. Dominant male baboons prevent other males from coming into close contact with their infants. Male hamadryas baboons can weigh from 44-66 lb (20-30 kg), while females weigh considerably less, typically from 22-33 lb (10-15 kg). The dominant male tolerates the young and will carry and play with them. The baboon has an unusual four-level social system called a multilevel society. Many mummified bodies of these baboons have been unearthed, and the hamadryas is said to have been trained by the Egyptians to perform many tasks. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to 10 females, which the males lead and guard. Sigg, H, Stolba, A, Abegglen, J. Females are brown, but males are silvery gray with an enormous cape of hair on the neck and shoulders. The mandrill, which is the monkey with the colorful face, was once classified in the same genus as the baboons, but was moved to its own in 1970. There is some geographical variation in average size. One captive chacma baboon has been reported to live 45 years in captivity , but this has not been confirmed. Hamadryas baboons were revered because certain behaviors that they perform were seen as worshiping the sun. Male Hamadryas baboons make a dog-like bark, when there are predators nearby. [2], Rowe, Noel. From rump to head baboons measure about 28 to 30 inches, and from head to tip of tail they are about 46 to 50 inches. Swedell L, Saunders J (2006) "Infant Mortality, Paternity Certainty, and Female Reproductive Strategies in Hamadryas Baboons". Hamadryas baboons live in groups averaging around 50 individuals. Baboons have a large muzzle, rather like a dog, which houses their large canine teeth. Male Hamadryas Baboon Hamadryas Baboon has a small non-prehensile tail. Adult males develop a shaggy, silvery-grey shoulder mane. The hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians and appears in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative name of 'sacred baboon'. [25] The male may also abduct a young female by force. Astennu, attendant to Thoth, is represented as a hamadryas in his roles as recorder of the result of the Weighing of the Heart and as one of the four hamadryas baboons guarding the lake of fire in Duat, the ancient Egyptian underworld. The IMR was estimated at age 5. The daily range of hamadryas baboons varies from 6.5 to 19.6 km. Baboons are intelligent and opportunistic creatures which belong to the Cercopithecinae family and papio genus. Males will generally have a mane or ruff. The weight is born on the front extremities by the fingers (digitigrade), and is born by the hind feet across the entire sole of the foot (plantigrade). Kummer, H. "A Male Dominated Society: The Hamadryas Baboon of Cone Rock, Ethiopia. Breeding Hamadryas Baboons breed through out the year and after a gestation period of 165 - 174 days, 1 infant is born. [12][14] Despite this, some social differences between the females occur. Hamadryas, (Papio hamadryas), also called sacred baboon, or Arabian baboon, large, powerful monkey of the plains and open-rock areas of the Red Sea coast, both in Africa (Eritrea, The Sudan) and on the opposite coast in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The hamadryas is the smallest baboon species, with a body length of about 60–70 cm (24–28 inches) and weight of up to 18 kg (40 pounds). The remaining males form bachelor bands. The hamadryas baboon range is the north east Africa and can be hunted in Ethiopia only. The male monkey weight is 20-30 kg. Like all baboons, the hamadryas baboon is omnivorous and is adapted to its relatively dry habitat. [22] Males sometimes raid harems for females, resulting in aggressive fights. pp. The hamadryas also differs from other baboons in its social behaviour. [17] However, later studies show female baboons retain close associations with at least some female kin. [23] The harem leader would retrieve the infants from their kidnappers, which is mostly an act to protect their offspring.[23]. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to 10 females, which the males lead and guard. Baboons are also native to and live in the Sarawat region of southwestern Arabia, in both Yemen and Saudi Arabia. This kidnapping can lead to dehydration or starvation for the infant. Aging males often lose their females to followers and soon lose weight and their hair color changes to brown like a female. Swedell L (2002) "Affiliation among females in wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". The female hamadryas does not have this distinguishing feature. NOW 50% OFF! [21], Females within a harem do not display any dominance relationships as seen in many other baboon and macaque species. [21][16] Females can spend about as much time with other females as they do with the harem males, and some females will even interact with each other outside of their harems. Size, Weight, and Lifespan The hamadryas baboon is sexually dimorphic, accounting for a great variance in size between males and females. [6], Males may have a body measurement of up to 80 cm (31 in) and weigh 20–30 kg (44–66 lb); females weigh 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and have a body length of 40–45 cm (16–18 in). Hamadryas baboons attain sexual maturity at about four years for females and between 5 to 7 years for males. The smallest baboon, the Guinea species, weighs 31 pounds and is 20 inches in length. -J. and Dasser, V. (1982) "Life history of hamadryas baboons: Physical development, infant mortality, reproductive parameters and family relationships". Schreier A, Swedell L (2009) "The Fourth Level of Social Structure in a Multi-Level Society: Ecological and Social Functions of Clans in Hamadryas Baboons". The dominant male of a one-male unit does most of the mating, though other males may occasionally sneak in copulations, as well. These females, known as the "central females", stay in closer proximity to the harem male than the other females. ", pg 376-377 of. [12][14][17][26] Females do most of the parenting. [8], Juvenile male, Prospect Park Zoo, New York, The baboon's range extends from the Red Sea in Eritrea to Ethiopia,[9] Djibouti and Somalia. The different species have varying coat colors but have a similar build. Their extremities are well-built for a lifestyle on the ground, they can run extremely fast. Weight: 70 - 135lbs / 32 - 61kg; Baboon Habitat and Requirements. In the wild, record longevity is 27 years. These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside. Swedell L, Tesfaye T (2003) "Infant Mortality After Takeovers in Wild Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons". Hapi, one of the Four Sons of Horus that guarded the organs of the deceased in ancient Egyptian religion, is also represented as hamadryas-headed; Hapi protected the lungs, hence the common sculpting of a stone or clay hamadryas head as the lid of the canopic jar that held the lungs and/or represented the protection of the lungs. This group consists of a single dominant male and up to 10 females. Hamadryas baboons have a unique social structure. A haremoften includes a younger "follower" male that may be related to the leader. The basis for family groups is one male with several females. [17][18] Bands are the next level. Swedell L, Schreier A (2009) "Male aggression towards females in hamadryas baboons: Conditioning, coercion, and control". For example, the Chacma Baboon can grow up to 120 cm tall and weigh 40 kg, while the Guinea Baboon is only 50 cm tall and weighs only 14 kg. A fifth species, the hamadryas baboon, lives in the hills along the Red Sea coasts of Africa and Arabia. The Hamadryas Baboons largely rely on body language to communicate with conspecifics. Sometimes a male will join another male’s group and act as follower or apprentice, eventually taking over from the lead male. Their body length is 60 - 86 cms (20 - 34 inches), their tail length is 41 - 58 CMS (16 - 23 inches) and they weigh between 22 and 37 Kgs (49 - 82 lbs). Babi was also said to give the righteous dead continued virility, and to use his penis as the mast of a boat to convey them to the Egyptian paradise. Omissions? Corrections? During the wet seasons, the baboon do not have to go far to find pools of water. Males are incredibly protective of the females in their harem. [19] Bands may fight with one another over food or territory, and the adult male leaders of the units are the usual combatants. [11] During the dry season, the baboons eat leaves of the Dobera glabra and sisal leaves. Hamadryas baboons are found in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. In: This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 10:55. They also protect the young from predators. Each male herds his females strictly—chasing them, rounding them up, and, if necessary, biting them on the nape of the neck; he supposedly mates only with the females of his own group. Description: Hamadryas Baboons are grey-brown in colour. [27][28] When males reach puberty, they show a playful interest in young infants. The other four species of baboons … Hamadryas baboons also eat insects, worms, reptiles, birds, and small mammals, including antelope. [25] While males in most other baboon species are transferred away from their male relatives and into different troops, male hamadryas baboons remain in their natal clans or bands and have associations with their male kin. Swedell, L.(2002):b "Ranging Behavior, Group Size and Behavioral Flexibility in Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". 9 to 31 kilograms (20 to 70 pounds) Size. These primates are mostly found in Africa as well as in some parts of south western Arabia. The 5 species of baboons are Papio ursinus (Chacma Baboon), Papio papio (Guinea Baboon), Papio hamadryas (Hamadryas Baboon), and Papio anubis (Olive Baboon), and the Papio cynocephalus (Yellow Baboon). [2][10] The hamadryas baboon lives in semidesert areas, savannas, and rocky areas, requiring cliffs for sleeping and finding water. [2] No major range-wide threats exist at present, although locally it may be at risk through loss of habitat due to major agricultural expansion and irrigation projects. Sometimes, Thoth himself appears in the form of a hamadryas (often shown carrying the moon on his head), as an alternative to his more common representation as an ibis-headed figure. The IUCN listed this species as "least concern" in 2008. A predynastic precursor to Astennu was Babi, or "Bull of the Baboons", a bloodthirsty god said to eat the entrails of the unrighteous dead. The maximum home range size for baboons is approximately 40 square km. [21] In addition, it is not uncommon for females of the same natal group to end up in the same harem. [25] Either way, the male will mate with the female when she matures. The hamadryas baboon (/ˌhæməˈdraɪəs/;[4] Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family. Other males will attempt to kidnap juvenile females and thus start their own new group. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Hamadryas baboons reach sexual maturity at about 4 years for females and between 5 to 7 years for males. Within clans, males are close relatives of one another and have an age-related dominance hierarchy. 112–120 in. Two or more harems unite repeatedly to form clans. [13][22][23] Visual threats are usually accompanied by these aggressive fights. The hamadryas baboon varies extends from the … Zinner, D., T. Deschner. Baboons have been shown both in captivity and in the wild to age about twice as fast as humans . [12][13][18] Males rarely leave their bands, and females are occasionally transferred or traded between bands by males. Instead of maintaining a large cohesive troop, hamadryas split during the day into groups consisting of a single male and his “harem” of up to six (or more) females. They a… During the dry seasons, they frequent up to three permanent waterholes. Baboons are primates comprising the genus Papio, one of the 23 genera of Old World monkeys.There are five species of baboons, commonly known as hamadryas baboon, Guinea baboon, olive baboon, yellow baboon and chacma baboon.Each species is native to one of five areas of Africa and the hamadryas baboon is also native to part of the Arabian Peninsula. The tribe is dominated by a few large adult males who constantly remain close to the females. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [12][13][14] Two or more harems unite repeatedly to form clans. Updates? The small species of baboons are 50 cm in height and 14 kg in weight only. [12][14], Hamadryas baboons have traditionally been thought of having a female transfer society with females being moved away from their relatives of the same sex. 50 to 76 centimeters at the shoulder (20 to 30 inches) Life span. Hamadryas Baboons are omnivores and they feed on grasses, roots, nuts, fruits, roots, tubers, invertebrates, small birds and small mammals. Hamadryas baboons utilize visual signals and gestures, vocalizations, and tactile communication. Hamadryas Baboon Size. Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys: baboons, macaques, and vervet monkeys) Subfamily: Cercopithecinae. Several family groups will form a clan; clans gather to forms bands; bands come together to form troops. They may migrate seasonally, moving into mountain areas during the wet season. They climb trees, but don’t stand out with good agility. They can live into their forties in captivity. However, males within the same clan tend to be related and respect the social bonds of their kin. [12] They will kidnap the infants by luring them away from their harems and inviting them to ride on their backs. These sleeping sites are usually Many males succeed in taking a female from another's harem, called a "takeover". A harem often includes a younger "follower" male that may be related to the leader. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is the northernmost of all the baboons, being native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Hamadryas Baboon Scientific Name Papio hamadryas hamadryas Body Length: 65–75 cm Weight: 12–21 kg Gestation: 160 days Number of young: 1 Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia, Saudi Arabia and Yemen Habitat: Rocky desert Description Hamadryas Baboons are grey-brown in colour. ... Members of the Chacma species are the largest in size forty seven inches tall and forty kilograms in weight on average. Hamadryas baboons live in diverse habitats ranging from subdesert to savanna and into steppe, plains, and arid brushland. Males are ashy gray and brown and have long silver-gray ca… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Unlike the flat faces of most monkeys, a baboon’s face has a long snout and a squared-off, dog-like muzzle. [7] The tail adds a further 40–60 cm (16–24 in) to the length, and ends in a small tuft. All baboons, especially the Hamadryas baboons spend more time on the ground than other monkey species. [15] Within clans, males are close relatives of one another[16] and have an age-related dominance hierarchy. 20 to 40 years. Females are brown, but males are silvery gray with an enormous cape of hair on the neck and shoulders. [25] Young males, often "follower" males, may start their own harems by maneuvering immature females into following them. Hamadryas baboons have a 15 to 24 inch (38 to 61 cm) tail. [12][13][18], The hamadryas baboon is unusual among baboon and macaque species in that its society is strictly patriarchal. The male hamadryas baboon is identified by its silver-white coloured mane and mantle (also known as a cape). Habitat. Two to four clans form bands of up to 400 individuals which usually travel and sleep as a group. Both genders in baboon species have ischial callosities, forming padding for long periods of sitting and playing a role during reproduction. [12], The baboon's drinking activities also depend on the season. As in many species, infant baboons are taken by the males as hostages during fights. The papio genus of "savanna" baboons has five old-world baboons: Hamadryas, Anubis, Yellow, Chacma, and Guinea. Adult males develop a shaggy, silvery-grey shoulder mane. Infants are very dark brown or black in coloration and lighten after about one year. The olive, yellow, chacma, hamadryas and guinea baboons of the genus papio. As in all highly social species, communication is varied and complex. Habitat. Demographic and life history parameters were estimated for a band of free-ranging hamadryas baboons, observed for 5.5 years in Ethiopia. Their size and weight depend on the species to which they belong. [14][24] In addition, females demonstrate definite preferences for certain males, and rival males heed these preferences. Some baboons are big and some are comparably small. (2000) "Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: 'Deceptive' swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticideticide". The other males and juveniles keep a lookout around the group and are responsible for raising the alarm in case of danger. Hamadryas Baboons live in rocky, hilly Ethiopian mountain territories. The tail of both sexes is 35–61 cm long. This would include a quick flashing of the eyelids accompanied by a yawn to show off the teeth. [21][16] Females can still associate and help their extended families despite their interactions being controlled by the harem males. [20] Several bands may come together to form a troop, usually at sleeping cliffs. Genus: Papio. The harem males suppress aggression between the females and prevent any dominance hierarchies from arising. [14], Like other baboons, the hamadryas baboon breeds aseasonally. Diet: Baboons are omnivores and eat grass, roots, tubers, seeds, nuts, fruit, insects and small animals. (Nowak, 1999) Communication and Perception. The Chacma Baboon can be 47 inches and weigh 90 lb, while the biggest Guinea Baboon is 20 inches and weighs only 30 lb. [12][14] Bands also contain solitary males that are not harem leaders or followers and move freely within the band. The hamadryas is the smallest baboon species, with a body length of about 60–70 cm (24–28 inches) and weight of up to 18 kg (40 pounds).
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