The red type is found in most parts of central mainland Greece (Thessaly, Boeotia and most of the Peloponnese), as well as the island of Euboea, and in colonies associated with these places, including most colonies in Italy. Calculating writing system efficiency with respect to reading ambiguity? Some of the Doric regions, notably Corinth, Argos, Crete and Rhodes, kept it until the 5th century BC.[15]. ].ΤΙΔΑΣ:ΑΜΥΝΤΑΣ[ This section pr… All forms of the Greek alphabet were originally based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi (Ξ) was used only in a sub-group of Greek alphabets, and with the common addition of Upsilon (Υ) for the vowel /u, ū/. There is a generalization to be made about the types of consonant sequences (“clusters”) in the two differ-ent sets of roots in terms of the feature [ sonorant]. [3][4] The "green" (or southern) type is the most archaic and closest to the Phoenician. The F-shaped letter may have stood for the new /v/ sound, while the special И-shaped form signified those positions where the old /w/ sound was preserved. I tried to address that by showing many modern languages do not have a problem with those clusters. San was used in Argos until the end of the 6th century,[13] in Sicyon until c. 500,[14] in Corinth until the first half of the 5th century,[13] and in Crete for some time longer. Problem Set #1: Ancient Greek Due by Friday, Feb 8 Goal: Apply Clements & Keyser's syllable theory to the Ancient Greek data given below in order to answer the questions at the end of this handout. Some local scripts used the M-shaped letter San instead of standard Sigma to denote the sound /s/. But those are almost never encountered in English. The top of Π could be curved rather than angular, approaching a Latin P (). In a number of Aegean islands, notably Rhodes, Milos, Santorini and Paros, it was used both for /h/ and for /ɛː/ without distinction. Note that the use of Χ in the "red" set corresponds to the letter "X" in Latin, while it differs from the later standard Greek alphabet, where Χ stands for /kʰ/, and Ψ stands for /ps/. Nominative singular -ς ( -s ) arose by reduction of the original cluster *-ts . 1.2. [11] Roger Woodard, professor of classics at the University at Buffalo, hypothesizes that San may originally have stood for [ts]. If I get an ally to shoot me, can I use the Deflect Missiles monk feature to deflect the projectile at an enemy? San (Ϻ) for /s/ was not normally used in writing, but apparently still transmitted as part of the alphabet, because it occurs in abecedaria found in Italy and was later adopted by Etruscan. I justify (lc) below. The most common early form is . Also, loans can have spelling pronunciations. (I think this is connected to some similar old tradition for the syllabification of Ancient Greek.) For declension in other dialects, see Appendix:Ancient Greek dialectal declension. Corinth used san (Ϻ) instead of Σ for /s/, and retained qoppa (Ϙ) for what was presumably a retracted allophone of /k/ before back vowels. [The form of a Greek question is not necessarily different from a statement; the punctuation and context are your main clues.] How are English spellings determined for words from eastern languages, How to annotate “popping” vs. non-popping sounds of sequential consonants. Both of these correspond to the modern standard alphabet. [35], Like Athens, Euboea had a form of Λ that resembled a Latin L and a form of Σ that resembled a Latin S. Other elements foreshadowing the Latin forms include Γ shaped like a pointed C (), Δ shaped like a pointed D (), and Ρ shaped like R (). The orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC. This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 19:22. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to … Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, articles, numerals and especially verbs are all highly inflected. 130.01, "Proposal to add Greek epigraphical letters to the UCS. normal spelling Ionic τέσσαρες vs. Attic τέτταρες). Word-initial consonant clusters beginning with /s/ or /ʃ/, an Indo-European characteristic? Another complication of Greek grammar is that different Greek authors wrote in different dialects, all of which have slightly different grammatical forms (see Ancient Greek dialects). It is attested in only one document, a set of grave stelae from 424 BC.[23][24]. This was the name of a 1st-century saint, appearing (as Θέκλα ) in the apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla . Greek underwent many sound changes. Letters representing long vowels are highlighted in yellow; digraphs are shown in parentheses. Local variants of the ancient Greek alphabet, "Introduction," The Poems of Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, the Shield of Herakles, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2017, Poinikastas database, LSAG Reference no. It had Χ representing /ks/ and Ψ for /kʰ/. Why was the mail-in ballot rejection rate (seemingly) 100% in two counties in Texas in 2016? It occurred in the place of normal epsilon (Ε) whenever the sound stood before another vowel. [6], In Naxos the system was slightly different: here, too, the same letter was used for /h/ and for a long vowel, but only in those cases where a long e-like sound had arisen through raising from older /aː/, not – as other users of vocalic eta did – also for the older /ɛː/ inherited from proto-Greek. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. [28], The letter Ι had two principal variants: the classical straight vertical line, and a crooked form with three, four or more angular strokes ( ). It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC. The related languages Ancient Greek, Gothic, and Sanskrit share the property that root-initial consonant clusters exhibit different reduplicant shapes, depending on their featural composition. What could these letters "S" in red circles mean in a biochemical diagram? Besides the standard form (either rounded or pointed, ), there were forms as varied as (Gortyn), and (Thera), (Argos), (Melos), (Corinth), (Megara, Byzantium), (Cyclades).[31]. Well, modern Greek does have its share of spelling pronunciations, doesn't it? The light blue system thus still has no separate letters for the clusters /ps/, /ks/. Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. I received stocks from a spin-off of a firm from which I possess some stocks. Over time it developed in analogy with Epsilon (which changed from to "E"), becoming either the classical "F" or . Some time prior to that, one early form of Greek, Mycenaean, was written in Linear B, although there was a lapse of several centuries (the Greek Dark Ages) between the time Mycenaean stopped being written and the time when the Greek alphabet came into use. The "blue" (or eastern) type is the one from which the later standard Greek alphabet emerged. (However, for the analogous /tʰ/ there is already a dedicated letter, Θ, taken from Phoenician.) *dóm-m̥ 'house' (acc. Υ and Ψ had frequent variants where the strokes branched out from the bottom of the character, resulting in and respectively. How does steel deteriorate in translunar space? In Athens and in Naxos it was apparently used only in the register of poetry. [5], The "light blue" type still lacks Ξ (/ks/), and adds only letters for /pʰ/ (Φ) and /kʰ/ (Χ). [25], The early shape of Ε was typically , with the arms diagonal and the stem descending below the lowest arm; it developed to the modern orthogonal form Ε during the archaic era. Even Demotic itself could be tainted by spelling pronunciations (to make a parallel with English, today "often" is sometimes pronounced with a /t/ by some, but that's in fact a spelling pronunciation, because the /t/ had been previously lost as I understand it, despite being there even earlier). In Pontic Mesembria, on the Black Sea coast of Thrace, it was used on coins, which were marked with the abbreviation of the city's name, spelled ΜΕͲΑ. [30], The letter Α had different minor variants depending on the position of the middle bar, with some of them being characteristic of local varieties. Pottery shard with inscribed names in archaic Corinthian script, c. 700 BC. Why is training regarding the loss of RAIM given so much more emphasis than training regarding the loss of SBAS? So for example, ancient Greek onset consonants could include: /p t … [26], Π also typically had a shorter right stem (). This image is also of Greek consonant clusters as they are charted on a tablet found in Greece dated to the third century BC, "In the time of the Delphic Archon Charixenos." A few letters have arisen from innovative letter distinctions, most of them for local alphabets. A basic division into four major types of epichoric alphabets is commonly made according to their different treatment of additional consonant letters for the aspirated consonants (/pʰ, kʰ/) and consonant clusters (/ks, ps/) of Greek. What does the phrase, a person with “a pair of khaki pants inside a Manila envelope” mean? MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2, 4, and 9 UTC…, Historical pronunciation of words in English. [9], The letter Digamma (Ϝ) for the sound /w/ was generally used only in those local scripts where the sound was still in use in the spoken dialect. My answer's main concern was, honestly, to dispel the idea that someone finding certain clusters "impossible" to pronounce generally shows anything but limitations due to their native language's phonotactics. Are syllable initial consonant clusters pronounced in Ancient Greek? Early forms of Μ typically had the left stem descending lower than the right stem (); this remained a distinguishing feature in those varieties that also had san () for /s/. From the ancient Greek name Θεόκλεια (Theokleia), which meant "glory of God" from the Greek elements θεός meaning "god" and κλέος meaning "glory". Achaean colonies had a Γ in the form of single Ι-like vertical stroke. Accent and Final Clusters The surface word-final consonant clusters are restricted in Greek to the sequence son- orant-stop-s:4 (2) a. phleps 'vein', piidaks 'spring', thriks 'hair' b. phorminks 'lyre', salpinks 'trumpet' A check through Kretschmer and Locker (1944) reveals that none of the many Greek Third declension of ἡ βραδυτής ; … Other important consonant cluster changes linking Ancient and Modern Greek include: 1. The "green" (southern) type uses no additional letters beyond the Phoenician set, and typically also goes without Ξ (/ks/). Θ was mostly crossed ( or ). All letters could additionally occur in a mirrored form, when text was written from right to left, as was frequently done in the earliest period. This reminded me that at least one older tradition of Latin syllabification takes an extreme approach to syllable onsets, and treats any intervocalic consonant cluster that can start a word as an onset. It also kept the archaic letters digamma (Ϝ) for /w/ and qoppa (Ϙ) for /k/. It is unclear whether the distinction between the two letters originally corresponded to different phonetic realizations of the /s/ phoneme in different dialects. Arcadian san Certainly Greek has unusual ones, like sph, phr, sphr, kt, phth, bd, ps, zd, as well as ones that occur in English, like pr, kl. Epigrapher Lilian Hamilton Jeffery (1915–1986) conjectured that San originally stood for a voiced [z] sound, and that those Doric dialects that kept San instead of Sigma may have had such a pronunciation of /s/. ]...ΑΥϜΙΟΣ:ΣΟΚΛΕΣ:[ Variant: Skills with Different Abilities confuses me. In addition, the red alphabet also introduced letters for the aspirates, Φ = /pʰ/ and Ψ = /kʰ/. Is an arpeggio considered counterpoint or harmony? A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European *s) and a sonorant ( r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant in Aeolic ( rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) by assimilation. From Proto-Hellenic *mrətós, from Proto-Indo-European *mr̥twós or *mr̥tós (“dead, mortal”), ultimately from the root *mer- (“to die”). > *dṓm. [16], Some Ionian cities used a special letter , alphabetically ordered behind Ω, for a sibilant sound in positions where other dialects had either ΣΣ or ΤΤ (e.g. in most of the Aegean islands and the East, the sound /w/ was already absent from the language. The normal letter epsilon (Ε) was used exclusively for the latter, while a new special symbol (or, in Sicyon, ) stood both for short /e/ and for /ɛː/. As described above, it also had an uncommon system for marking its [e]-sounds, with a Β-shaped letter used for /e/ and /ɛː/ (classical Ε and Η respectively), and Ε used only for long close /eː/ (classical ΕΙ). Ξ typically had a vertical stem (), and Φ was most often . But if the first consonant was a fricative and the second consonant was /s/, the first consonant instead became a plosive, favoring a plosive-/s/ cluster. A number of loan words and New Latin words derived from Ancient Greek have word initial clusters of a plosive+nasal or dissimilar phonemes like /ps/ or /pt/. [22], A special letter for a variant realization of the short /e/ sound, , was briefly used in the Boeotian city of Thespiae in the late 5th century BC. (277/276 BCE) See if you can sort some of it out and then go to my original posts on the subject. There is never really any single piece of definite evidence when reconstructing pronunciation of dead languages. Ancient Greek uses reduplication to create perfect tense forms (“I have X’ed”), exemplified in (1). Ancient clusters, whether of stops or of aspirates, become fricative + stop; for example, hepta ‘seven’ becomes eftá, (e)khthes ‘yesterday’ becomes (e)khtés. This system is found in the cities of the Ionian dodecapolis, Knidos in Asia Minor, and in Corinth and Argos on the northeastern Peloponnese. 7 Returning to Consonant Clusters « ΕΝ ΕΦΕΣΩ on February 15, 2010 at 10:52 pm The letter was subsequently turned upright and the edges curled outwards (, , , ). Since its shape suggests a compromise form between an Ε and an Ι, it is thought that it denoted a raised allophone, approaching /i/. The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. [35], The Euboean alphabet belonged to the "western" ("red") type. Likewise, the clusters /ps/, /ks/ are simply spelled ΠΣ, ΚΣ. [29], The letters Γ and Λ had multiple different forms that could often be confused with each other, as both are just an angle shape that could occur in various positions. At the end of a word ς, elsewherε σ, as σκηνης, of a tent. syllable in Greek. As do other languages with loans from Classical Greek. The new letter Omega (Ω) to denote the long half-open [ɔː] sound was invented first in the East, in the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, at some time before 600 BC. Are there languages with consonant clusters that include consonants that never occur alone? The "red" (or western) type is the one that was later transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet, and bears some crucial features characteristic of that later development. [6] Early psilotic dialects include eastern Ionic Greek, the Aeolic Greek of Lesbos, as well as the Doric Greek of Crete and Elis. How to avoid boats on a mainly oceanic world? I cannot avoid aspirating or inserting a schwa when trying to pronounce these syllable initially, though syllable finally or word medially I … This probably means that while in the dialects of other eta users the old and new long e had already merged in a single phoneme, the raising sound in Naxos was still distinct both from /aː/ and /ɛː/, hence probably an [æ]-like sound. It may be an alveolar approximant [ ɹ] intervocalically, and is usually a trill [ r] in clusters, with two or three short cycles. In Knidos, a variant letter was invented to distinguish the two functions: Η was used for /h/, and for /ɛː/. Data and discussion Kahn (1976) proposed that the consonant clusters that can begin a word are always the same as the consonant [20], In one attested document, the Arcadocypriot Greek of Mantineia used an innovative letter similar to И (), probably derived from a variant of san, to denote what was probably a [ts]-like sound in environments reflecting etymological Proto-Greek */kʷ/. [35], The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed in the late 9th century BC, and that it may have been invented specifically for the purpose of recording epic poetry. [7], The distribution of vocalic Η and Ε differs further between dialects, because the Greek language had a system of three distinct e-like phonemes: the long open-mid /ɛː/ (classical spelling η), the long close-mid /eː/ (later merged with the diphthong /ei/, classical spelling ει), and the short vowel /e/ (classical spelling ε). (c) will match a consonant (k) will match a consonant or consonant cluster (v) will match a vowel (p) will match a plosive or stop consonant (f) will match a fricative consonant (n) will match a nasal consonant; case sensitive: check this if you wish distinguish between unstressed lowercase sounds and stressed uppercase sounds The vowels are α, ε, η, ι, … In a sequence of dental stops, an epenthetic *s was inserted between them. *h₁ed-ti 'eats' > *h₁etsti > Hittite ezzi. How are recovery keys possible if something is encrypted using a password? The cluster was often simplified to -ss- in the later descendants (Latin and Germanic among others). [37], ]..........ΤΑΣ:ΧΑ. Medieval Greek also had cluster voicing harmony favoring the voice of the final plosive or fricative; when the resulting clusters became voiceless, the aforementioned sandhi would further apply. Some of the distinctive features of the Latin as compared to the standard Greek script are already present in the Euboean model. Elsewhere, i.e. It has been surmised that in this dialect the sound /w/ may have changed to labiodental /v/ in some environments. There are also several historical forms. I accidentally added a character, and then forgot to write them in for the rest of the series. These four types are often conventionally labelled as "green", "red", "light blue" and "dark blue" types, based on a colour-coded map in a seminal 19th-century work on the topic, Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets by Adolf Kirchhoff (1867). Why did George Lucas ban David Prowse (actor of Darth Vader) from appearing at Star Wars conventions? This rule has been preserved in Hittite where cluster *tst is spelled as z (pronounced as [ts]). Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Some sound changes occurred only in particular Ancient Greek dialects, not in others, and certain dialects, such as Boeotian and Laconian, underwent sound changes similar to the ones that occurred later in Koine. [5], The "dark blue" type, finally, is the one that has all the consonant symbols of the modern standard alphabet: in addition to Φ and Χ (shared with the light blue type), it also adds Ψ (at the end of the alphabet), and Ξ (in the alphabetic position of Phoenician Samekh). Sicyon kept the sign as a local emblem on its coins. THE WRITING OF ANCIENT GREEK CONSONANT CLUSTERS THE WRITING OF ANCIENT GREEK CONSONANT CLUSTERS SCHWINK, FREDERICK W. 1991-01-01 00:00:00 FREDERIC W. SCHWINK THE WRITING OF ANCIENT GREEK CONSONANT CLUSTERS1 In what follows, it is proposed to inquire how the three Systems used for writing Greek -- Linear B, the Cypriote Syllabary, and the Greek Alphabet -- dealt with the clusters … I think evidence from modern languages is significant, but it would be even more convincing if you gave examples showing these sounds were preserved in demotic, and not just in learned forms. Early Crete had an archaic form (which resembled its original model, the Y-shaped Phoenician waw ), or a variant with the stem bent sideways ().[10]. So why did the ancient Greeks make up letters for these consonant sequences that aren’t even affricates? *h₂éws-os-s 'dawn' > *h₂éwsōs > Ancient Greek ēṓs. Only Φ for /pʰ/ is common to all non-green alphabets. However, the consonant /h/ was progressively lost from the spoken language (a process known as psilosis), and in those dialects where this had already happened early on in the archaic period, Η was instead used to denote the long vowel /ɛː/, which occurred next in its name and was thus, in the /h/-less dialects, its natural acrophonic value. Some occurred between Proto-Indo-European (PIE) and Proto-Greek (PGr), some between the Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek periods, which are separated by about 300 years (the Greek Dark Ages), and some during the Koine Greek period. The crooked type was the older form, and remained common in those varieties where it could not be confused with sigma because sigma was absent in favour of san. In many languages, such as Armenian, Korean, Thai, Indo-Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Icelandic, Ancient Greek, and the varieties of Chinese, tenuis and aspirated consonants are phonemic. Η was used for the consonant /h/. I did put up a little trivia about Greek consonant clusters, however, for your interest. This is the system found in Athens (before 403 BC) and several Aegean islands. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. [5], The letter eta (Η, , originally called hēta) had two different functions, both derived from the name of its Phoenician model, hēth: the majority of Greek dialects continued to use it for the consonant /h/, similar to its Phoenician value ([ħ]). It was created by breaking up the closed circle of the Omicron (Ο), initially near the side. 2. The fact it's, I hadn't listened to Google. [19] The sound denoted by this letter was a reflex of the proto-Greek consonant clusters *[kj], *[kʰj], *[tj], *[tʰj], or *[tw], and was probably an intermediate sound during the phonetic change from the earlier plosive clusters towards the later /s/ sound, possibly an affricate similar to /ts/. This may occur because phonetic cues are harder to hear in cues, especially if the sounds are unreleased. It is also usually a trill [ r] in syllable-final position. Technical report, Unicode Consortium, 2005", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Archaic_Greek_alphabets&oldid=987395284#Old_Attic, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [31], The letter Β had the largest number of highly divergent local forms. The C-like "lunate" form of Σ that was later to become the standard form in late antiquity and Byzantine writing did not yet occur in the archaic alphabets. Even today, most words of learned Ancient Greek origin have ι pronounced as [i], always a full vowel in its own syllable.However, where ι is understood to have come from [j], a [j]-derived pronunciation may reasonably apply. [21], In the highly-divergent Pamphylian Greek, the letter digamma (Ϝ) existed side by side with another distinctive form . When to use in writing the characters "=" and ":"? As an alphabetic character, it has been attested in the cities of Miletus,[17] Ephesos, Halikarnassos, Erythrae, Teos (all situated in the region of Ionia in Asia Minor), in the island of Samos, in the Ionian colony of Massilia,[18] and in Kyzikos (situated farther north in Asia Minor, in the region of Mysia). C-like forms of Γ (either pointed or rounded) were common in many mainland varieties and in the West, where they inspired the Italic C; L-like shapes of Λ were particularly common in Euboea, Attica and Boeotia. During the archaic period, this includes most of mainland Greece (except Attica), as well as Euboea and Crete. For the consonant Β, in turn, Corinth used the special form . [27], The crooked shape of Σ could be written with different numbers of angles and strokes. The only Greek rhotic /r/ is prototypically an alveolar tap [ ɾ], often retracted ([ɾ̠]). This latter symbol was later turned into the diacritic sign for rough breathing by the Alexandrine grammarians. I have not, however, encountered any systematic description of initial consonant clusters. The reduplicative systems of the ancient Indo-European languages are characterized by an unusual alternation in the shape of the reduplicant. In Ancient Greek, consonant length was distinctive, e.g., μέλω [mélɔː] "I am of interest" vs. μέλλω [mélːɔː] "I am going to". As to Google, I meant /fs/, but that's just what I hear anyway, I could be wrong. Η was originally a closed rectangular shape and developed several variants with different numbers of arrangements of connecting bars between the two outer stems. Mike has an interesting post on certain consonant clusters in Greek. [ Why are the word-initial consonant clusters /tl/ and /dl/ absent in English? It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to 6th century AD). In south Italian colonies, especially Taranto, after c. 400 BC, a similar distinction was made between Η for /ɛː/, and for /h/. Like most early variants it also lacked Ω, and used Η for the consonant /h/ rather than for the vowel /ɛː/. [32], Athens, until the late 5th century BC, used a variant of the "light blue" alphabet, with ΧΣ for /ks/ and ΦΣ for /ps/. Ancient Greek grammar is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology. Vowels 3. ]....ΚΕΑΣ:ΑΝΓΑΡΙΟΣ[ Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC. [33], By the late 5th century, use of elements of the Ionic alphabet side by side with this traditional local alphabet had become commonplace in private writing, and in 403 BC, a formal decree was passed that public writing would switch to the new Ionic orthography consistently, as part of the reform after the Thirty Tyrants. Tenseness. ]ΤΟΙ ΜΑΛΕϘΟ:ΚΑΙ.[.
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