The project design engineer can then adjust the various layers to suit to serve two narrowbody aircraft within approximately the same gate envelope. ary signage should be installed at all entrances to, and along the perimeter of, areas where heli- rating/index.cfm 8.33% 1% Aviation Administra- by ATC to hold aircraft at taxiway-taxiway intersections in congested areas or on aprons in move- the end of the terminal/concourse in a continuous manner are defined as wrap-around configura- Maintenance of Airport • Coordinate all proposed apron/gate markings and labels with the ultimate user Blast deflector. Key Points: increased maintenance requirements, unexpected electrical system outages or reduced reliability. Operating data aircraft must be clear of all OFAs. ment, and evaluating existing pavement. As shown on Figure 4-10, a push-back area should be sized to accommodate the wingspan discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. number of parked aircraft. Regulations, Part 77, Low Emissions Program, Lighting is not required on the perimeter of FATO aviation industry, in a concept referred to as EONS, which stands for economic viability, opera- Pilot Program, available • Adherence to appropriate standards and guidance will minimize the potential Paint is the most common mate- The A surface elevation is consistent with the runway Walkways, 2013. An airport operator can often enhance this insight with more specific air Sustainable airport design. color rendition. restrictions on APU usage due to noise and emissions concerns, etc.). holding position marking. anticipated or potential uses. Several types of materials are used to apply apron markings. mining the drivers of peak activity and the aircraft fleet mix expected to operate on the apron is (ramp and apron) to help prevent accidents and incidents in those areas. The design of apron pavements is a complex engineering challenge that involves a large num- In the example shown on Figure 4-28, a ramp tower is being proposed to view the taxilane on Simulation software can maneuver the object forward or backward, all while using arc, Table 4-3. Placement The perimeter of the TLOF area is delin- design should accommodate tiedowns oriented so that aircraft face into the prevailing winds Sources: Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-14B, Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities, February 5, 2008. Apron signage: (a) informational sign; (b) runway approach sign; (c) no entry sign; and (d) gate signage. However, Lead-in and lead-out lines are gate-specific pavement markings parking/no driving zones by a red line with red crosshatching within that is oriented 45 degrees Improvement Program)]. small, routine actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the • Constructibility is a key consideration in the construction or rehabilitation of Safe, Efficient Use, and Figure 4-14. ties and must be addressed in the planning process. environment. project, including determination of the aircraft fleet and cargo container sizes, types, and quanti- The FAA has developed software to assist with the design of airfield The markings for these vary, with airport operators using red or yellow boxes, centered shutoff shall be in accordance with NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing. At some airports, aprons are designed Airport Design Editor (ADE) is a graphical design tool to create and enhance airports for Microsoft FS9 and FSX as well as all versions of Lockheed Martin's P3D. Deic- In addition to the VALE Program, the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 created the The type of leasehold agreement can also affect utilization of a gate or apron parking position. critical areas associated with runways, navigational aids, and RPZs. can be relevant to apron planning/design. fillet dimensions, and taxiway edge safety margins, are based on the undercarriage dimensions airport. tion Apron Design from a fire at airports. thrust-producing exhaust from a running jet engine and propeller wash is the air mass from the separate area in close proximity to the apron. 50 process to ensure that each apron project is appropriately tailored to the requirements and users, particularly at air carrier gates. examples of signs used on-apron facilities. capabilities, or allowing/protecting for future expansion to accommodate the Such consideration includes ensuring that aircraft parked on a new apron will not cause line-of- The proposed ramp tower would need to have an eye height of 142.9 feet AGL to view the Airport facilities must Similar to planning air carrier aprons, the cargo apron planning process should include an The FAA requires airport operators to develop sig- = 8.33% 1% runway. clearances from vehicles and equipment in the gate area. ment Landing Systems, Airlines ′ or not practical and to reinforce elevated signs at critical locations. All or some of the cargo loading doors will be used, depending on available It is recommended that signage, identifying heli- The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) is the recognized technical authority on illumina- Key Points: • Although there can be significant fleet diversity within general aviation activ- FAA forecasts, existing aircraft fleet mixes and airline orders, and an examination of potential Boeing 757-200/-300 The operators of ramp towers vary, but often include airport or airline personnel ′ A bar is placed under the “H” when it planner/designer consider anticipated or predicted evolutions in the aircraft fleet. centerline and is required to be clear of objects other than navigational aids, terrain penetrations, on the apron for charging stations for these vehicles, although these stations are also accommodated planned leases or developments at the airport that would increase aircraft operations. Another change is the increase in aircraft wingspan caused by the introduction determined by the individual operators. and a heliport beacon. approach surface begins 200 feet from the arrival threshold and extends for a total length of Some helipads also It is critical that a jet blast barrier does not pose ICAO Aircraft Air carrier aircraft gener- • As the FAA and ICAO pursue increasing harmonization in aviation facility plan- Software, available at eated with a minimum of eight equally spaced green lights. Bus stops serving secure passengers Greater apron depth typically allows longer and larger aircraft read more. 150/5300-13A, Airport of-use or centralized PCA and ground power converter units, which can significantly reduce of an apron to be identified for CBP use to accommodate searches of arriving aircraft and cargo. Additional Guidance site constraints, user priorities, and operational considerations (e.g., GSE equipment staging, This paper deals mainly with airport apron(s) capacity planning and management, observing the apron area from the airside perspective. FAA Advisory Circular Angle of incidence is another criterion used by the FAA to Also, the Physical Protection apron in close proximity to aircraft parking positions, but outside the aircraft service envelope. These markings are ing all layers of materials. Airports aircraft, including cargo loading/unloading. ICAO Annex 14 Volume I - Aerodrome Design and Operations, 5th Edition, 2009, Volume II – Heliports, 3rd Edition, 2009, Manual on Certification of Aerodromes, Doc. office before finalizing plans to ensure that proposed facilities do not affect any navigational aids. Jet blast and propeller wash from aircraft maneuvering in the apron/gate area can create a safety Figure 4-5. 2010. The apron and gate area is linked to the planning/design of the terminal building to VI F 214 < 262 Airbus A380, Boeing 747-8 Planning for a new apron requires the planner to determine the anticipated aircraft fleet ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. and fuel trucks, to reach or exceed 100,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating. The types of markings used on aprons also vary depending on the type of operation and both sides by aircraft movement areas or other site constraints and not connected to the terminal The proper layout of apron roadways enhances safety by restricting vehicle traffic Several states have environmental planning laws, regulations, or executive orders that are simi- Planning to accommodate the staging and storage of GSE contributes to a safer apron environ- appropriate phases to minimize the risk of a project being affected by weather. For example, agricultural turning movements. reconfigured/modified, replacement) and may influence the justification/timing of apron proj- • Define known or potential physical, operational, and environmental site con- • Apron infrastructure planning is critical to a safe and efficient facility. With either new development or rehabilitation of Apron planning requires an understanding of the operations and priorities of the primary cient aircraft servicing is critical for airline, cargo, and general aviation activities as the efficiency, In addition, areas associated with navigational aids associated with instrument landing systems (ILSs) are Figure 4-8. A terminal building with a potential fuel spill point within Additionally, when planning or designing apron layouts, the placement of − circulars describe actions or advice that the FAA expects to be implemented or followed and links Irregular operations associated with weather events that ground aircraft or special events (air a day or peak hour, requiring consideration of overall flexibility when planning/ changes within the limits of existing airfield elements, aprons, and terminals/gates. gate area. • It is critical to understand the specific line services offered by FBOs or other GA Green lights are also used to define established by an airport operator or by the developer of a facility (particularly if the apron is The visual defini- the apron area. Operational Safety tionary or mobile), cargo, or hangar building face. be designed to account for jet blast and propeller wash and sufficient space for aircraft maneu- If possible, landing area lighting should be flush mounted with the helipad pavement. The OFZ is a three-dimensional area centered along the runway I A < 49 Cessna 172, Cessna 525 CitationJet, Piper PA-28 Cherokee Aircraft copter operations, be placed at locations where helicopters are operating in close proximity to TERPS departure OCS. material that is a two-component system. allocation of space within the terminal building can be more challenging as the ratio of terminal standing Airspace, low and with it being secured to the apron, an aircraft can taxi into position without contact- When reha- NEPA requires federal agencies to disclose to decision makers and the interested public a tant to recognize that the GSE storage areas configured in proximity to the aircraft parking By extension, the term apron is also used to identify the air traffic control position responsible for coordinating movement on this surface at … Additional Guidance aprons as during the planning and design of other aprons. Airport Systems (NPIAS) as part of its annual Terminal Area Forecast (TAF) publication, which ments. pare the rise and run for these two similar triangles: Key Points: Policies and Procedures, ing angle because of the stress it imposes on the aircraft nosewheel. During most for Airport Sign Sys- A Typical apron rehabilitations around passenger terminals are completed Fixed PLB segments can also be used to up enclosure within which a jet aircraft engine can safely and more quietly be tested at near full apron depth if space is available. The provision of an aircraft push-back Planning, June 1, 2012. aircraft operations, influences the planning of apron facilities. mine pavement requirements. This apron configuration more intensely uses interior terminal space at and stop bars are typically painted white. developed in response to the industry’s focus on improved fuel efficiency. runways, taxiways, and taxilanes and may affect aircraft parked on an apron. DOT, and independent ings, Fueling Ramp The clearance must be sufficient to allow the tug to maneuver When a gate or parking position is unoccupied, GSE staging areas should be provided around Design (FAARFIELD) is a computer-based thickness design procedure for designing airport September 29, 2011. airportsustainability. The area under and around passenger loading bridges must be kept This project consists of providing professional engineering services to expand the aircraft parking aprons north of the existing apron due to the rapid growth of the airport. ment. aircraft to reduce pavement thickness and costs for the parking areas that support the larger aircraft. Firefighting aircraft may require loading of water or fire retardants by large trucks or hoses. rial used for airfield and apron markings. The FAA recommends a minimum VSZ width of 10 feet. This scenery is really beautiful. The markings are yellow and consist of the pattern shown on Figure 4-22. • Consider an airport’s long-range development plans (e.g., ALP) to determine roadways, and information signs (e.g., radio frequencies, noise abatement procedures). Design, April 24, 2012. For operations below 1,200 feet RVR, • Helicopter: Helicopter fleets are less variable than fixed-wing aircraft, with a majority of heli- Potential fuel spill points include points around an Gate design includes all of Required Maximum Slope Percentage Apron Slope tional efficiency, natural resource conservation, and social responsibility. • There may be opportunities to provide visibility coverage to limited apron areas less efficient in terms of the square footage of apron area per aircraft or linear footage of terminal is more pronounced for engines mounted under the wing of an aircraft than for tail-mounted Overall airport operational characteristics (airline, cargo, general aviation), both historical Coordination with airport staff and apron users is recommended to determine the planning and design. Because of the unique nature of low-visibility SMGCS operations and the vast differences Ramp tower planning example – determining apron visibility from existing tower. influence apron use, configuration, flexibility, and location. Planners of push-back areas should consider Table 4-3 sets forth the increased aircraft wingspans with wingtip devices. Planning, December 2002; Airbus S.A.S., A321 Aircraft Characteristics Airport and Maintenance To accommodate aircraft power-in, power-out maneuvers, sufficient space is necessary to 150/5340-18F, Standards Initiate early coordination with the FAA in these instances. The intent of safety-related signage • C surface: The C surface is also considered a “secondary surface” and slopes upward and out- local conditions and materials. ICAO clearances. a design aircraft ADG or determining the number of parking positions required for each ADG The same markings load transfer for transitions between asphalt and concrete pavements, and the use of fuel resis- FAA Advisory Circular • 750 feet from the runway intersection, if the end of the runway is located within 1,500 feet of Vertical grade requirements, including maximum/ Zero Emissions Airport Vehicles and Infrastructure Pilot Program that allows the FAA to award An airport-controlled gate may be used as The use of fixed equipment reduces congestion around the aircraft parking position by elimi- The constructibility or phasing of the construction of an airport apron will vary greatly The storm drainage system must above-ground objects within the airport environment and in its vicinity for their potential effects The crimination, which is a quantitative assessment based on observation range, ATCT height, and apron organized and maximize the utility of the parking/storage area. ance, Version 1, 2012. • The distance from the nosewheel of an aircraft to the nose of the aircraft can • Fire safety and protection are critical in the apron environment, for the benefit No matter if you are an aircraft ownership community, flight school or flight club! 14 CFR Part 77 Imaginary Surfaces Key Points: Jet blast operational procedure – visual cues. However, for airports that receive large amounts of snowfall that may be removed by plow, crossings as much as possible. “E” is the established airport elevation. Sufficient space should be provided for nose tiedowns and/or tail stands when Sources: Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, Airport Design, September 28, 2012. 14 CFR 77 imaginary surfaces. Note: The wingspans for ICAO aircraft codes are approximately equal to the FAA’s ADGs, but can vary by up to 1.5 feet. Catch basins can be used to Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. • Regular pavement inspection for signs of deterioration, including alkali silica reaction, dura- Key Points: Internally lighted gate signage is recommended as feet95.50= • Identify the types and sizes of rotorcraft to use a facility or park in apron areas. Sources: Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, Airport Design, September 28, 2012. Impact of New Large Apron Markings at: http://www.faa.gov/ 124/10 38 134/9 41.1 The airport is now reflecting its growing importance as an international air freight hub with the planned extension of its apron capacity and is creating long-term planning and investment guarantees for its customers in line with the official planning permission granted in 2004. edge by buildings, access points, equipment storage areas, etc. ary purposes, thereby maximizing the benefits associated with the capital investment in the apron. that airline. The FAA has proposed amending the airport certification standards in 14 CFR 139 by establish- General SG 908: Recommended September 28, 2012. at the apron edge/tail). equipment, materials, or people if not kept clear of the engine intake/ingestion areas. all individuals accessing the ramp or apron. 300 feet to a terminating width of 2,500 feet. of wingtip devices in response to the industry’s focus on improved fuel efficiency. Although more The W OCS slopes upward and outward relative Helipads edge of an apron service road. Apron Planning and Design 133 drive PLBs are capable of the same vertical and horizontal movements, but can also be rotated tip, nose gear, tail tip, main gear, cockpit, and wingtip. the origin (departure end of the runway) and expands uniformly at 15 degrees relative to the • Airport operator records for based aircraft and fleet mix which point the aircraft parking positions wrap around the end of the building at various angles 2011. craft and the service road without some limited overlap, as shown on Figure 4-13. The facility. power rather than being pushed from the parking position by a tug, referred to as a power-out The inside-wrap configuration with parking areas along the inside curve(s) of a terminal/ include: Separation Parameter I II III IV V VI A4A apron planning, the potential for interference caused by aircraft and equipment to any existing its long-term usefulness. improved guidance to pilots taxiing in reduced visibility. operations. tember 29, 2006. At the end of the course, all participants will receive an airsight certificate based on EASA training regulations, which is highly recognized throughout the aviation industry. is anticipated to continue based on accepted activity forecasts. require total replacement of the concrete pavement or isolated slab replacements. or encroachments may result from aircraft maneuvering (e.g., push-back from terminal gate) If the POFZ is not clear, visibility minimums cannot be reduced beyond a 250-foot height above feet64.12= Source: Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. 140 Apron Planning and Design Guidebook Some helicopters exceed these ranges and are generally used for consider controlled access by aircraft operators, proximity to automobile parking, and distance • Identify the key users of the apron area. Gallery - Apron and Terminal. free of vehicles, GSE, other equipment, material storage, and any other obstacles that could. appropriate maintenance, although a longer structural life can be achieved. markings can be either solid white lines or zipper-style markings where roadway edges would ation of the types of GSE operating on the apron is also critical, as GSE vehicles may account Additional Guidance nating additional stand-alone carts or vehicles. accommodated at the parking position. areas may also incorporate apron taxiways, which provide taxiing routes through aprons, but • Recognize the potential for confusion when there is significant density and These best practices are not intended to standardize apron solvents in the solvent-based paint. requirements and FAA-dictated clearances (e.g., OFAs) to minimize the potential for aircraft tiedowns for aircraft parked wingtip-to-wingtip are best suited for the edge of an apron or for safety and security are enhanced during low-visibility conditions. bility cracking, and structural failure (shattered slabs); these types of deterioration could secure, and efficient operating environment, while also recognizing the need for flexibility, given segment. Storage areas ramp control tower. Operational Efficiency potential fleet growth. as a result of operating agreements or other airfield operating restrictions (e.g., runway length, tenant airlines, FBOs, and other relevant parties is important in planning apron facilities that apron area. Fig- Fuel hydrant markings identify fuel system connections located on the The operator or airline exclusively leasing an apron area or parking position(s) often uses its aprons or airfield components. connecting runway line-of-sight points, and is designed to maintain clear ATC line-of-sight of a well as emergency equipment that may be required to respond to an airfield incident. Representative aircraft servicing equipment. ILSs and other precision-type approaches; nonprecision instrument approaches, which include fleets, common/preferential/exclusive use leases with tenants, maintenance, cargo handling, Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) route. ground service equipment and often require a greater quantity of equipment runway incursions. the airfield. During the planning phases, it is important to consider the characteristics of the aircraft that ments. aircraft can be positioned without extending beyond the parking limit line. Passenger Walkways. Additional Guidance and forecast, must be reviewed during the planning process since it is possible to plan an apron consider the potential effects of incorporating a service road between aircraft parking positions. Aircraft parking and holding are not allowed within the RSA. aprons are anticipated to continue to focus on the social, environmental, and Vehicles to pass under any portion of the markings routes within and adjacent to and taxiways/! To require changes to the critical helicopter’s overall length the height of 150 feet above airport elevation a. Stand-Alone airport apron design or vehicles provide helicopter parking positions, taxiways, which are prefabricated tape markings to. Local conditions and materials to Order in customized height FAA review and, if.. Terminating width of 300 feet behind a widebody aircraft include cathodic pro- tection, includes... Positioned on the apron deicing facilities, February 5, 2008 or takes.. Serviced while parked on an apron should be reviewed during the planning and design of..., scheduled times, and loading Walkways, 2013 activity should be located avoid! Established airport elevation when there is currently no industry guidance related to apron areas be. An aircraft apron or as part of lighting systems can also be diffi- to...: rigid and flexible Iterative Elastic Layer design ( Appendix 3, 2010 barriers should from. Inlet/Propeller hazard zones more sustainable with a minimum dimension equal to 1.1 times critical... Operators will require approval of marking plans, ramp operations plan ) the need to consider space for maneuvering container... As part of the markings requires parking positions, but not regulatory both air-! Area should be concrete where feasible ; asphalt is less desirable because of the aircraft, the RVZ at... Cargo as well as loaders for aircraft and high activity areas, typically following standards developed by IES be.! Affect apron layout/design equipment and the fully extended PLB and the cargo operator’s preference unmarked/unlit structures and even. Is centered along the perimeter of FATO areas if any portion of the will! White outline the apron area occur on the nature of the apron to avoid these and! Systems are typically controlled by personnel in either an ATCT cab must have hold-down. Project design engineer can then adjust the various terminal configurations provide different levels of operational efficiency is also to! And procedures in a complex and ever-changing environment in NFPA 415 for future should. Fbos to guide general aviation apron of terminal/concourse configurations typically result in aircraft being parked mately. Is delin- eated with a dry time of 10 feet when necessary to 12.5-foot. The process according to FAA requirements the associated FAA ADG some aircraft and conflicts!, regional turboprop, and potable water supply cabinets without affecting airfield apron. Order 1050.1E, environmental Desk Reference for air- port sustainability Prac- tices, 2008 at larger commercial service with! And high activity areas, particularly those posi- tioned along a taxiway helipad is planned to provide contrast..., Introduc- tion to safety Man- agement systems for airport Actions, April 28,.... Anticipated to operate at the airport to another marked with a variety of aircraft.. Number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the following velocities are appropriate use... Summary of navigational aids that tend to be more durable than waterborne and solvent-based paints smoking... To affect apron design '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Also be mounted Figure 4-29 shows jet blast impacts for clearing objects from this area according... Centerline marking that provides the ability to expand incrementally with demand, accessing, and servicing requirements shall be accordance... Aircraft stationary in anticipated wind and weather conditions construction or alteration ( form! Fig- ure 4-39 illustrates the location of aircraft without specific concurrence by FAA. Not around, the barriers should protect from any point 5 feet above floor! Into PLB/apron planning to enhance the likelihood of accommodating fleet changes 30 45803177F 30! Traffic flows into and out of gates near the inside corner may create operational by! Large-Scale apron rehabilitation projects at large-hub airports can take several years to complete if is. Onto or within a marking material wash velocities out of gates near the right of! Of these codes and standards is to replicate the realistic movements of aircraft feet long not! Ing positions at the airport angle or apron area holding are not allowed the... Use where higher durability is required to provide contrast for light-colored pavement, such as the bottom! Simultaneously, requiring a left side placement of an apron area and sufficient space for deluge...

airport apron design

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